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An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one’s person, and is alleged to have the magical power to protect its holder– either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing. Amulets are different from talismans because a talisman may have alleged magical powers other than protection. Amulets are sometimes confused with pendants– small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet, but so may any other object which purports to protect its holder from danger.
Potential amulets include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plant parts, animal parts, and even written words in the form of a magical spell or incantation to repel evil or bad luck. Magic scrolls are found to be used in various cultures, and artifacts of scrolls with magical inscriptions have been found in the middle east, Europe, and the far east.
The word “amulet” comes from the Latin word amulētum. The earliest extant use of that term is in Pliny’s Natural History, in which it means “an object that protects a person from trouble”.
Source — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amulet
is a curse believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware. Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury. Talismans created to protect against the evil eye are also frequently called “evil eyes”.
The idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it. The concept and its significance vary widely among different cultures, primarily in West Asia. The idea appears several times in rabbinic literature. It was a widely extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures. Charms and decorations with eye-like symbols known as nazars, which are used to repel the evil eye, are a common sight across Armenia, Albania, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Israel, Morocco, southern Spain, Italy, Greece, the Levant, Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Syria, and Mexico, and have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists
Lapis lazuli or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color. As early as the 7th millennium BC, lapis lazuli was mined in the Sar-i Sang mines, in Shortugai, and in other mines in Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan. Lapis was highly valued by the Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1900 BC). Lapis beads have been found at Neolithic burials in Mehrgarh, the Caucasus, and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania. It was used in the funeral mask of Tutankhamun (1341–1323 BC).
At the end of the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli began to be exported to Europe, where it was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all blue pigments. It was used by some of the most important artists of the Renaissance and Baroque, including Masaccio, Perugino, Titian and Vermeer, and was often reserved for the clothing of the central figures of their paintings, especially the Virgin Mary.
Today, mines in northeast Afghanistan and Pakistan are still the major source of lapis lazuli. Important amounts are also produced from mines west of Lake Baikal in Russia, and in the Andes mountains in Chile. Smaller quantities are mined in Italy, Mongolia, the United States, and Canada.
Lapis is the Latin word for “stone” and lazuli is the genitive form of the Medieval Latin lazulum, which is taken from the Arabic لاجورد lājaward, itself from the Persian لاجورد lājevard, which is the name of the stone in Persian and also of a place where lapis lazuli was mined.
The The English word azure, French azur, Italian azzurro, Polish lazur, Romanian azur and azuriu, Portuguese and Spanish azul, and Hungarian azúr all come from the name and color of lapis lazuli.
(/ˈæʒər/ AZH-ər or /ˈæzjʊər/ AZ-yoor) is a variation of blue that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear day.
On the RGB color wheel, “azure” (hexadecimal #0080FF) is defined as the color at 210 degrees, i.e., the hue halfway between blue and cyan. In the RGB color model, used to create all the colors on a television or computer screen, azure is created by adding a little green light to blue light. The complementary color of azure is orange.
In the X11 color system which became a standard for early web colors, azure is depicted as a pale cyan or white cyan.
A few examples of chromatic studies from Emily Noyes Vanderpoel’s Book “Color Problems” (1902)
Download a PDF (32.6 Mb) — Color Problems; a Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color
S3 can form the radical anion S−3, which has an intense blue colour. The ion is also called thiozonide, by analogy with the ozonide anion, O−3. The gemstone lapis lazuli and the mineral lazurite (from which the pigment ultramarine is derived) contain S−3. International Klein Blue, developed by Yves Klein, also contains the S−3 radical anion. This is valence isoelectronic with the ozonide ion. The spectrum of the colour shows a strong absorption band at 610–620 nm or 2.07 eV. The blue colour is due to the C2A2 transition to the X2B1 electronic state in the ion. The Raman frequency is 523 cm−1 and another infrared absorption is at 580 cm−1.
The S−3 ion has been shown to be stable in aqueous solution under pressure of 0.5 GPa (73,000 psi), and is expected to occur naturally at depth in the earth’s crust where subduction or high pressure metamorphism occurs. This ion is probably important in movement of copper and gold in hydrothermal fluids.
Lithium hexasulfide (which contains S−6, another polysulfide radical anion) with tetramethylenediamine solvation reacts with acetone or donor solvents to form S−3.
The S−3 radical anion was also made by reducing sulfur gas with Zn2+
in a matrix. The material is strongly blue coloured when dry and changes colour to green and yellow in the presence of trace amounts of water. Another way to make it is with polysulfide dissolved in hexamethylphosphoramide where it gives a blue colour.
Lapis Lazuli in pharmacy and medicine
complex rock mixture / mineralized limestone+ grains of a blue cubic metal — lazurite.
Ancient Egyptian Ebers Papyrus (1534 BC)
cuneiform tablets — Assyrian Ashurbanipal’s library at Nineveh
-(with accompanying incantations) to anoint the ears or be bound to the site of the pain for “emplacement of the intense pain of hand of ghost”.
13th century Rasaratna Samuccaya and other Ayurvedic texts
-disorders of the lymph
-cures grey hair
The Medicine Buddha is represented holding a lapis bowl
Greece — Dioscorides (c. 40-90 AD)
-growths on the eye
enceclopedia Hortus Sanitatis (1491)
-cures tumours in children
16th to early 18th century
Lapidario of Alfonso X (c. 1250)
-to provoke menstruation
-makes the hair curl
-febrile and convulsive state
-getting rid of crazy thoughts
-freshness and health sleep
-strengthen the vision
-“strengthen the heart”
-treat swollen limbs
-protective barrier against fractures of bones
mystical powers and abilities:
-increasing the strength of magnetic radiation
-facilitating the escape of the astral body
-favorably promotes friendship and love in general
-help to achieve happiness and prosperity in love and gambling
-joy and peace
-constancy and sympathy
-faithfulness of thoughts
-get rid of shyness.
Archeologist during a demonstration
Khepri is derived from Egyptian language verb ḫpr, meaning “develop”, “come into being”, or “create”. The god was connected with the scarab beetle (ḫprr in Egyptian), because the scarab rolls balls of dung across the ground, an act that the Egyptians saw as a symbol of the forces that move the sun across the sky. Khepri was thus a solar deity. Young dung beetles, having been laid as eggs within the dung ball, emerge from it fully formed. Therefore, Khepri also represented creation and rebirth, and he was specifically connected with the rising sun and the mythical creation of the world.
Other Online Sources: